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Amino Acids Incorporation Service


Amino Acids Incorporation Service

Creative BioMart Vir-Sci is a recognized expert in amino acids incorporation service. We have a mature amino acids incorporation platform that can provide rapid and satisfactory amino acids incorporation service according to customer needs. In addition, we also provide protein/polymer hybrid conjugates service and supramolecular chemistry service.


Amino acids incorporation service is very important for virus chemical modification, which includes covalent and non-covalent modification. For covalent modification, the natural amino acids or post-modified non-natural amino acid residues of viral proteins are used to directly incorporate viral vectors, which is one of the most direct, stable and effective modification methods. Viruses are generally composed of protein-encased nucleic acids. The natural amino acids of the viral proteins or unnatural amino acid residues introduced later provide a "handle" for the covalent chemical modification of the virus. The modified molecules are incorporated to give the virus novel physical and chemical properties. After decades of development, the direct incorporation of natural amino acid residues has achieved good results in the chemical modification of various viral vectors.

Lysine Incorporation

Both N-terminal of lysine and protein can provide active -NH2 to form a covalent link. In this way, paclitaxel, fluorophore, 2-hydroxypropyl, ploy-hydroxypropyl, pHPMA and polyethylene glycol can be successfully connected to the surface of various viruses. Lysine is a common amino acid, which is composed of about amino acids in common proteins 6.3%. It is a hydrophilic amino acid often exposed on the surface of proteins. These characteristics make lysine an excellent modification target, but too much modification can also harm the structure of the virus.

Adeno-associated virus covalently linked to paclitaxel Figure1. Adeno-associated virus covalently linked to paclitaxel (Wei, et al. 2012)

Cysteine Incorporation

The sulfhydryl group of cysteine of the viral protein can react with maleimide to form a covalent chemical link. Using this reaction, the modified molecule can be coupled to the viral vector. Cysteine accounts for only 1.1% of the amino acid composition of the protein, which is neither too hydrophilic nor too hydrophobic. Therefore, it is an ideal target for modification. In addition, maleimide is also easily obtained by chemical synthesis or purchase. Therefore, the maleimide-mercapto reaction is also widely used chemical modification of protein drugs

Arginine Incorporation

Dicarbonyl compounds can react with proteins to form terminal glycosylation products. Through Maillard reaction of malonaldehyde and arginine residues exposed on the surface of AAV2 capsid, AAV2 with arginine terminal glycosylation was obtained. The glycosylation of AAV2 reduced the affinity of the virus to the liver and enhanced the infection ability to skeletal muscle and myocardium.

At present, most of the chemical modification of viral vectors uses lysine as the modification target. Some plant viruses or bacteriophages use aspartic acid, glutamic acid tyrosine or tyrosine as the target for modification. This also provides a good reference for chemical modification of viral vectors for gene therapy.

Our Amino Acids Incorporation Service (include but not limited to the following):

  • Lysine Incorporation Service
  • Cysteine Incorporation Service
  • Arginine Incorporation Service

Our Advantages

  • Provide multiple amino acids incorporation service
  • Ensure high efficiency and quality for amino acids incorporation service
  • Competitive price in the market of amino acids incorporation service
  • Short service cycle
  • Ensure 24/7 online service

Workflow of Microbiology Services at Creative BioMart Vir-Sci


Creative BioMart Vir-Sci has an expert team that own extensive experience in the field of amino acids incorporation, involving various viruses and technical methods. We guarantee that each specific experimental step in the amino acids incorporation process is strictly controlled to ensure the provision of high-quality amino acids incorporation service. If you are seeking for related services, please feel free to contact us, our expert team will design suitable technical solutions according to your needs, and provide you with professional and thoughtful services.


  1. Wei, F.; et al. Conjugation of paclitaxel on adeno-associated virus (AAV) nanoparticles for co-delivery of genes and drugs. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 46(3):167-172.


Our services are not intended for private therapeutic use!